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Other Infections

WHO Declares Zika Virus a Global Health Emergency, Sexual Transmission Reported in Texas

The World Health Organization said this month that clusters of microcephaly andneurological disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome occurring in areas affected by Zika virus -- currently concentrated in Brazil and elsewhere in Central and South America and the Caribbean -- is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

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Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment: 6 Drugs Better than 5

A regimen containing 6 drugs was more likely to cure multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) than a regimen containing 5 drugs, a 9-country observational study has shown. The study also found that each active drug in the regimen increased the likelihood of a cure by 65%, and inclusion of pyrazinamide doubled the chance of curing MDR-TB, according to findings were published in the December 29 edition ofPLoS Medicine.

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WCLH 2015: Death During MDR-TB Treatment More Likely in HIV+ and Underweight Patients

People living with HIV, those who are underweight, and those with more extensive drug resistance are more likely to die during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a 9-country study, according to a presentation at the 46th Union World Conference on Lung Health in Cape Town this month.

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Drug Overdoses Rising, Many Users Have No Access to Clean Needle Programs

Drug overdose deaths, primarily due to prescription pain relievers and heroin, have risen dramatically in the U.S. -- now exceeding deaths in motor vehicle accidents -- with opioids accounting for more than 28,000 deaths in 2014, according to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Another recent report found a lack of syringe exchange programs in rural and suburban areas, which account for much of the rise in HIV and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs.

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WCLH 2015: 9-Month Regimen Cures 82% of People with Multidrug-resistant TB in African Study

A 9-month standardized treatment regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cured 82% of people recruited to an observational study in Francophone Africa, according to a presentation at the 46th Union World Conference on Lung Health last week in Cape Town. The regimen showed similar effectiveness to the performance of 9-month MDR-TB treatment regimens in previous studies in Africa and Bangladesh, and with the exception of hearing loss, serious adverse events were rare.

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WCLH 2015: Community Care Workers Boost TB Case Finding Among Hard-to-Reach Adults

Active case finding by community care workers is an effective tool for increasing tuberculosis (TB) case detection, according to 2 studies presented at the 46th Union World Conference on Lung Health held in December in Cape Town. Finding and diagnosing TB is the essential first step to closing the global gap in stopping TB.

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WCLH 2015: TB Treatment Advancing, but Not Reaching All Who Need It

Tuberculosis (TB) treatment has seen some promising recent advances -- including the promise of shorter regimens for multidrug-resistant TB and better therapies for children -- but still not enough is being done to provide access to prevention and treatment for all who need it, according to presentations at the 46th Union World Conference on Lung Health taking place this week in Cape Town.

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10. Shorter Tuberculosis Prevention and Treatment

Studies presented this year showed that a 9-month treatment regimen cured more than 80% of people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in an observational study in Africa, while a 3-month regimen of isoniazid and pyrazinamide was as effective as 6 months of isoniazid alone at preventing the development of active tuberculosis disease in people with HIV.

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EACS 2015: Newest MDR-TB Drug Prices Could Fall by Up to 95% Through Generic Production

The cost of newer drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) could be cut by up to 95% if generic production of patented products could be achieved in the same way as for antiretroviral drugs, according to a study presented at the 15th European AIDS Conference last month in Barcelona. Price reductions might permit a 10-fold increase in the number of people who can be treated for MDR-TB within current budgets, without any new funding, the study suggests.

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